History of rubber and importance of kerala

  . Important Resorts and Sanctuaries out side kerala

                                                           TAMIL NADU


The Famous Hill Station located on the Palani Hills and about 120 km north-west of Madurai. Kodaikanal is famous for its Water falls. It is a place dear to the Botanists mainly because of a shrub called KURINJI, which flowers only every 12 years and the next blossoming is expected to be in 2004. Astro-physical Laboratory, Flora and Fauna Museum. Bryant Botanical Park, the Silver Cascade waterfalls etc. are other main attractions.  At Kodaikanal, normal temperature varies from 10 to 200 C in summer and 8 to 18 oC in winter. The famous Palani Muruga Temple is not far away.


 Ootty is also known as Udhagamandalam or Ootacamund. It is the Headquarters of the Nilgiri District of Tamil Nadu. It is the first Hill station in India established by the British during the 19th century. Ootty is 14 hours bus journey from Kanyakumari, 5 hours from Mysore, 14 hours from Chennai, 3 hours journey from Coimbatore. Ootty is a place for out-door activities. The Botanical Gardens of 1848, the famous Flower Show there usually in May, the Horse Races, the Horse Riding , Boating, St. Stephens Church, the oldest Church in the Nilgiris built in 1829 are major attractions.


It is the state-of -the-art theme park in India set against the beautiful Nilgiri ranges. About 40 km. from Coimbatore. An elaborate playground and a fun place offering several dry games and water games , a large wave pool and 1.8 km meandering moat etc. are the main features.


Mudumalai forest teems with bamboo, sandalwood, teak etc. It is primarily a tiger reserve. Its wild life includes gaur, spotted deer, barking deer, sambar, flying squirrels,langur etc. and several species of bird life including migratory birds. The park is close to and accessible from Ooty and Mysore. It forms part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.


The Nilgiris is the oldest and second highest mountain range of India after the Himalayas. It is part of the Western Ghats and the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. It presents a spendid variety of wild life such as the Nilgiri Tahr, mouse deer, barking deer and sambar, langur, flying squirrels, four-horned antelopes, gaur etc. A variety of bird life is also present here.

DODDABETTA, KOLARI BETTA PEAK, MUKURTHY PEAK,  MUDUMALAI NATIONAL PARKS, THE NILGIRI PEAK etc are tourist attractions. The Nilgiris is the most popular region in Tamil Nadu for Trekking.


Famous for its waterfalls numbering 9. The waters are said to be rich in minerals and containing curative qualities. A popular health resort for families for the invigorating experience of standing and bathing under the waterfalls. This picnic spot is only 135km north-west of Kanyakumari.


This famous wild life sanctuary is the home for gaur, tigers, panthers, elephants, spotted deer, bears, a variety of birds etc. This sanctuary on the slopes of the Western Ghats along the border between Kerala and Tamil Nadu is famous for its spectacular scenery and the diverse range of flora and fauna. It has been re-named as INDIRAGANDHI WILD LIFE SANCTUARY.The nearest town is Pollachi and buses are available from Coimbatore to Pollachi.


 This sanctuary near the Palk Straits, which separates India and Sri Lanka by a distance of just 28 km, is famous for its vast flocks of migratory waterfowls like the flamingos during the winter season and birds like koels, barbets, minas etc during the spring season. This sanctuary is about 90 km south east of Thanjavur


This tiger sanctuary is in the mountains near the border between Tamil Nadu and south Kerala. Apart from tiger, other wild life like sambar, chital, the rare lion-tailed macaque etc. are also found here.


The Guindy National Park is the smallest National Park in India. This park is an abode for Spotted deer, jackals, civet cats, various species of monkey and many birds. In the adjacent Snake park, there are different varieties of snakes, crocodiles and turtles.



This bird Sanctuary, situated on one of the three islands in the river Cauvery, is 5 km from Mysore.  It is a greenery filled beautiful haven for herons, white ibis, little cormorants, darters open-billed storks and several other species of birds. Boats are available to reach the island and also to drift along its shores in pleasant contemplation of the birds and scenery.


The Bandipur National Park forms part and parcel of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. It is contiguous to the world famous Mudumalai sanctuary in the south, in Tamil Nadu. Bandipur National Park, once known as Venugopalswamy Park, was the exclusive hunting reserve of the Mysore Maharajas. The late Jayachamaraja Wodeyar gave up shooting in 1955 and the game he shot last, a gaur, adorns the Central Hall of the   Forest Museum in Coimbatore. Bandipur was the first park in India created under the banner of Project Tiger in 1973. The Bandipur forest teems with different species of trees, shrubs, plants, flowers and birds. Wild life in the Park includes Tigers, panthers, mouse deer, barking deer, flying squirrel, Malabar squirrel, foxes etc. Buses are frequently available from Mysore and Ooty to Bandipur.

The various conservation measures, coupled with the excellent visibility of the terrain has made Bandipur more popular than Mudumalai, which has lost its old charm as a wild life sanctuary due to the cluttering of rest houses, lack of periodical scything of weeds in the animal zone and apathy to strict enforcement of rules and regulations.


It was created in 1974 for preserving the endangered blackbuck antelopes which are also known as Indian antelopes. When frightened, they can run up to 80 km per hour for several kms.The females have no horns and the males have distinctive hollow spiral horns.


The Nagarhole Natioanl Park, also known by the name Rajiv Gandhi National Park created in 1955, is an abode for tigers, leopards, wild elephants, four-horned deer, king deer, common langur etc. There are several varieties of birds, which include woodpeckers and peacocks. The park is 3 hours bus journey from Mysore.



It is 40 minute-train journey from Churchgate in Mumbai to Borivali, and then 6 km road journey to the caves. This park on the northern outskirts of Mumbai is well known for the Kanheri Caves. Once these caves were used by Buddhist monks between the second and ninth centuries as their monasteries and temples. The caves have interesting sculptures and the most impressive is the Great Chaitya Cave. There is a Lion Safari Park inside the national park.

                                   UTTAR PRADESH


Nainital has been a famous hill station ( U.P. State) since 1858. The origin of Nainital harks back to mythological times. Snow view, Naina Peak, Lands End, Hanuman Garhi, State Observatory, The Mall, Dorothys Seat etc.are places of interest.Nainital is connected by road to major centers of northern India. It is 379 km by road to Agra, 277 km to Delhi, 404 km to Lucknow etc


Corbett National Park in U.P. is Indias oldest and best known wildlife reserve. It is named after Jim Corbett who was a famous Hunter, Author and Conservationist. The Park has an area of over 525.8 sq. km. It encloses Patildun Valley of Ramganga river and foothills of the Shivalik range. The park is the home of the tiger, crocodile, phython,deer. Elephant, panther, sloth bear, wild bear, gharial, rhesus monkey, mongoose,  and 585 species of birds.For the Anglers, there is Mahseer, trout and goonch.For accommodation at Corbett and Dudhwa, contact U.P. Tourism Bureau, Chandralok, 36 Janapath, New Delhi or The Field Director, Project Tiger, Corbett National Park, Ramnagar, Nainital.


This park in U.P. is of prime importance because of its flora, fauna and ecological spread out. The park encompasses the forests of North Khen Forest and holds abundant wildlife species. These include tiger, panther, sambhar, swamp deer, spotted deer, barking deer, wild bear, sloth bear, crocodile, jackal, elephant, hyena, porcupine, hare besides 400 species of birds and various reptiles. There is also good scope for fishing. For accommodation at Corbett and Dudhwa, contact U.P. Tourism Bureau, Chandralok, 36 Janapath, New Delhi Or the Director, Dudhwa National Park, Lakhimpur Kheri, Uttar Pradesh.


It is one of the famous hill stations in India. It is only just 38 km from Dehradun. In 1827, Captain Young of the British Army chanced upon this extraordinarily beautiful wooded ridge and created the centre around which the hill station grew. Mussoorie offers views of both the Himalayan ranges to the North and the Shivaliks and plains to the south. This erstwhile aristocratic resort is now a popular hill station. It promises a variety of entertainments throughout the year.

Bhadraj Temple, Camels Back Road, Childrens Lodge, Gun Hill, Municipal Garden, Mussoorie Lake, Nag Devta Temple, Van Chetna Kendras, Cloud End etc are important attractions. Dehradun is the nearest railway station. Mussoorie is well connected by roads.It is 278 km from Delhi, 85 km from Rishikesh, 100 km from Haridwar, 276 km from Shimla





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